I read an interesting article today about using psychological domain knowledge for improving recommender-system predictions. A very interesting idea…
Archive for February, 2008
I was playing around with the VMWare player and an Windows XP image trying to establish a VPN connection with Microsoft’s VPN Client. It worked just fine, connected and then got stuck at “Verifying Username and Password”. After a while it aborted with a time-out error (was it error 638 or 721?). It turns out that GRE (General Routing Encapsulation) doesn’t deal well with multiple network address translations (e.g. using VMWare Networks with NAT and then my DSL-Router). It worked once I changed it to bridged network. This took me a couple of hours to figure out…
I had written long before I had a blog about doing copy protection the right way (read: so it requires some effort to remove it). With the more recent programing frameworks a couple of things changed. For one, all the new programing frameworks (.NET, Java) have cryptography support, which means it is far simpler to incorporate a license key scheme based on digital signatures. Personally I like using 512bit-DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm) for these purposes, because the key is long enough to stop amateurs from computing the secret key and short enough that a signature encoded as BASE32 could be typed in by someone. In the software you obviously only include your public key for verifying the signature of your license.
One issue with byte-code languages is that they are fairly trivial to disassemble (and produce very human readable code). Microsoft even included an MSIL Disassembler with .NET. Therefore the code needs to be obfuscated. One thing to try (not all obfuscater-programs support this) is to make the names as human-unfriendly as possible. Renaming classes to “A” and “B” is nice, but renaming them to “XfGkoAlPPqzz” and “XfGkoBlPPqzz” makes it even harder to read.
With a signature-based license key the hackers have only a few options left since they can’t write a key-generator. For one, they could patch a different key into the software for which they know the private key and generate signatures for this new key. It’s therefore important to use a hash of the real private key in some other ways in the program. For example, one could hash the private-key string with SHA/MD5 and use the result as a key for decrypting some data with a symmetric cypher such as AES. Another idea is to put the hash (or a checksum using the hash of some data and the public key) in some saved user data in order to prevent data-exchange between the cracked and legitimate versions of the software.
The second option is to find where the accept/reject decision is made in the program and to patch this comparison. Note that API-calls to the framework are fairly easy to find, even in obfuscated code. You should therefore have the API-call (for the crypto-functions as well as displaying any kind of error-message like “invalid license key”) far away from the comparison-operation so the hackers have to dig through more code. Also, I found that using a command-pattern makes for fairly unintelligible byte-code. Consider creating a class that encapsulates commands and has some Execute() method that can also return which command to execute next. Now, if you have a couple of commands in a List that are executed in a loop by invoking all the respective Execute() methods, then that is a bit harder to follow. Consider writing commands that can change entries in some global hash-table of strings, an If-Command, a Goto-Command, a MessageBox-Comand, a Verify-Signature-Command etc. With all those implemented, you can encode a little program by putting all those commands in a list. The important thing now is to encode the accept/reject decision (and one or two important parts of your software unrelated to the license-key) using the Command-Pattern, i.e. to write little programs in your “command-pattern-programing-language”. The If-Statement being used for the accept/reject will then be the same spot every other condition is tested in your code and can therefore not be patched without destroying other parts of the program. This forces the hackers to understand your command-pattern and to figure out what bytes they have to change to make this an unconditional jump. I found this fairly easy, clean and straight-forward to program (and debug) in a high-level language, yet fairly hard to understand in obfuscated byte-code.